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Digital radiography: CR versus DR? Sometimes recognizing the distinction in technologies makes a difference

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The superior dynamic range of CR systems, coupled with the ability to enhance and manipulate the processed image (software filters), ensures reshoots are eliminated. With ongoing technological advancements and significant cost reductions with regards to purchasing, processing, and storage of traditional film, digital systems have rapidly become the preferred choice. There are several advantages to choosing a DR panel system vs a CR system.

This sort of anisotropic blur is not present in DR systems, which have discrete detector elements fixed in space. It increases an asset or expenses account or decreases equity liability or revenue accounts. Here, the asset gained (computer) is to be notified on the left side of the asset account. The “X” in the debit column denotes the increasing effect of a transaction on the asset account balance (total debits less total credits), because a debit to an asset account is an increase. The asset account above has been added to by a debit value X, i.e. the balance has increased by £X or $X. Likewise, in the liability account below, the X in the credit column denotes the increasing effect on the liability account balance (total credits less total debits), because a credit to a liability account is an increase.

She has counseled hundreds of patients facing issues from pregnancy-related problems and infertility, and has been in charge of over 2,000 deliveries, striving always to achieve a normal delivery rather than operative. Element has invested over $3m in computed radiography equipment and training to expand its aerospace NDT testing capabilities across the UK and the USA. Element’s industry-leading laboratories host the latest digital radiographic testing equipment that can quickly and efficiently identify weaknesses in your materials. Our experts use this powerful non-destructive testing method in the aerospace, energy, and manufacturing sectors to make certain your products are compliant and fit for purpose. As a DDA system does not involve a technician removing the IP (or film to be processed), it permits automation by specimen manipulation between the source and the detector.

The left column is for debit (Dr) entries, while the right column is for credit (Cr) entries. The debit side of the T-account shows all the transactions that increase the account balance, while the credit side shows all the transactions that decrease it. All accounts must first be classified as one of the five types of accounts (accounting elements) ( asset, liability, equity, income and expense). To determine how to classify an account into one of the five elements, the definitions of the five account types must be fully understood. Liabilities, conversely, would include items that are obligations of the company (i.e. loans, accounts payable, mortgages, debts).

  1. Cesium Iodide (CsI) DR panels are two to three times more efficient than CR with a DQE of 70%.
  2. The company records that same amount again as a credit, or CR, in the revenue section.
  3. Liabilities increase on the credit side and decrease on the debit side.
  4. This becomes easier to understand as you become familiar with the normal balance of an account.
  5. From the bank’s point of view, when a debit card is used to pay a merchant, the payment causes a decrease in the amount of money the bank owes to the cardholder.

The chart of accounts is the table of contents of the general ledger. Totaling of all debits and credits in the general ledger at the end of a financial period is known as trial balance. Note that if you overpay your credit card, you have the option to obtain a refund from the credit card company or leave the money in the account as a credit balance. If you leave the money in the account, you can typically spend down the credit balance with charges. However, if you leave the credit balance idle for a few months (i.e. make no charges), the creditor may issue a refund automatically.

A rigid or flexible cassette houses the imaging plate (IP), which facilitates their use in many applications. Overpayment – Sometimes a person might overpay the total amount due for a credit card payment. For example, let’s assume your credit card statement indicates that you owe $2,000 in total, but you mistakenly pay $2,500. This $500 would be a credit and you would now have a credit balance of $500. There are a few theories on the origin of the abbreviations used for debit (DR) and credit (CR) in accounting. To explain these theories, here is a brief introduction to the use of debits and credits, and how the technique of double-entry accounting came to be.

Overall image quality is enhanced and more efficient with DR systems in comparison to CR systems; DDA exposures are typically seconds in duration, which drastically reduces inspection times. Compared to CR and especially film, DR generally requires a smaller dose of radiation and thus less exposure time to attain comparable image quality. DR also has a very high dynamic range with bit-depths typically ranging from 8 to 16-bit. Images what is cr dr can also be manipulated and enhanced using grey-scale transforms and filters. In theory, FPDs can be used many thousands of times over many years and because there is no need for scanning or chemical processing, it offers a very efficient and cost-effective solution. However, if you later returned the lawnmower and Sears agreed to give you back the $300 you charged, your credit card statement would reflect a credit of $300.

Benefits of digital systems

A debit records financial information on the left side of each account. A credit records financial information on the right side of an account. One side of each account will increase and the other side will decrease.

Aspects of transactions

Equity accounts record the claims of the owners of the business/entity to the assets of that business/entity.[28]Capital, retained earnings, drawings, common stock, accumulated funds, etc. The Equity section of the balance sheet typically shows the value of any outstanding shares that have been issued by the company as well as its earnings. All Income and expense accounts are summarized in the Equity Section in one line on the balance sheet called Retained Earnings. This account, in general, reflects the cumulative profit (retained earnings) or loss (retained deficit) of the company. The line scan is a new method of developing the CR image, which relies on an array of laser diodes and CCDs that move across the PSP imaging plate stimulating and reading the image in a rapid fashion. These arrays can be made small enough to fit inside a cassette or in an integrated CR system.

When it comes to the DR and CR abbreviations for debit and credit, a few theories exist. One theory asserts that the DR and CR come from the Latin present active infinitives of debitum and creditum, which are debere and credere, respectively. Another theory is that DR stands for “debit record” and CR stands for “credit record.” Finally, some believe the DR notation is short for “debtor” and CR is short for “creditor.”


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The CR reader may be in a different location than the imaging room and the cassette would have to be transported to be read. This all increases the processing time and adds to the overall time it takes from shooting the image and being able to read it. In most cases, you want to make sure the image quality is acceptable before you end the patient’s appointment in case additional images need to be taken, thus the patient must wait longer with CR. Using CR also adds additional throughput time for staff as they navigate these additional steps in the process. As an industry, digital x-ray technology is advancing and has shifted more towards the continued development and improvement of DR technology vs CR systems.

Even though CT scanning has been a mainstay of medical imaging for over 40 years, it is still a relatively new application in industrial non-destructive testing. As mentioned before, there are much fewer steps in the process to take images with a DR panel vs using a CR system. With a DR panel, in many cases you never have to move it (unless you have a wireless panel that maybe you move between a wall stand and a table). It’s ready to go immediately and the image is sent directly to the image acquisition software that is usually right there in the x-ray room with the patient. The entire process from the x-ray being shot to the image showing up on the screen is a matter of seconds. From here the clinician can use the image acquisition software to enhance or manipulate the image as desired.

Patient Image – Flat Panel Dr System 17 X 17 Csi Tethered

Only recently have the terms “integrated” or “cassetteless” been introduced to distinguish this type of system from cassette-based CR. Perhaps the most important aspect of integration is the possibility that the receptor system may share information about how the radiographic projection was generated. For example, if you bought a lawnmower at Sears for $300 using your credit card, the charge would show up on your statement as a $300 debit. Your balance owed to the credit card company would increase by $300 because of this charge. Computed Radiology (CR) is the digital replacement of X-ray film radiography.

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